International certifications for electrotechnical products
Electrical and mechanical safety
The international approvals in the area of electrical and mechanical safety are the classic international approvals that have been practiced for many years. The vast majority of them are based on the application of the so-called CB procedure .
The IEC standards are mostly used, which are often implemented with so-called national deviations in a target country.
However, some countries also have technical requirements that differ from IEC standards. A typical example here are the USA and Canada. In other countries, however, it can also be a mixture of local standards and requirements and locally implemented IEC standards. Typical examples of this are, for example, Japan and Morocco.
Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC)
The international approvals in the field of electromagnetic compatibility are largely the recognition of test reports from a test laboratory accredited according to ISO 17025.
In some countries there is an obligation to select specific test laboratories for testing. This also applies to the certification of electromagnetic compatibility where CB procedure is partially used too.
IEC and EN standards are often used as standards.
Radio communication devices (RED)
Products that are manufactured as radio modules, i.e. radio equipment itself, as well as devices in which radio modules are installed, are subject to mandatory certification in many countries around the world.
In terms of certification procedures, a distinction is essentially made between the recognition of test reports from test laboratories accredited according to ISO 17025 and the obligation to have the products tested in a local test laboratory in the target country.
When recognizing test reports for local certification, a main distinction is made between test reports according to FCC and according to RED.
The validity of the certificates issued varies from 1 year to unlimited. Modifications to the product or newer standards may lead to re-certification sooner.
ETSI or EN standards are used as standards. With FCC, the requirements are contained in the FCC rules.
Chemical substances (RoHS)
More and more countries are setting requirements with regard to the chemical product safety of electrical products. Very often, these local requirements are identical to those of the European Union, but there are also local requirements that have modified limit values compared to those of the European Union or differ with regard to the labeling obligations.
Here, too, the USA and California in particular deviate from the largely harmonized international standards with Propulsion 65.
Household appliances in particular, millions of which are in use in almost every country, are increasingly subject to local energy efficiency requirements. Here, too, reference is very often made to the standards applicable in the EU. But the corresponding IEC standards are also implemented locally, just as with electrical safety. If the test requirements are still mostly adopted identically, there is a no longer harmonized jumble, especially when it comes to labeling of the energy efficiency rating on the products.
In addition to the requirements described in more detail above, there are many more requirements that must be taken into account when the market is expanded into other countries.
Examples include packaging directives, food contact safety, REACH, …
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